Daria Goncharova, a graduate student of SPhTI, won a scholarship of the President of the Russian Federation for research in which a new method for synthesizing medical nanoparticles will be applied. Preparing nanoantibiotics by pulsed laser ablation in a gaseous medium can substantially increase the purity and activity of the final product. In the future, the development by the young scientist could be used to make bandages that accelerate wound regeneration and to improve the antibacterial properties of biomaterials for bone replacement.
- One of the most important problems of modern medicine is the emergence of so-called superbacteria - new strains and bacteria that are resistant to the last generation of antimicrobial agents,-says Daria Goncharova, who is a researcher at the Laboratory of New Materials and Advanced Technologies. - In a number of cases, nanoparticles can be a promising tool. They have a less selective effect on biological objects, and there is no habituation effect to them.
Under the guidance of Valery Svetlichny, assistant professor at the Faculty of Physics, deputy head of the Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Daria Goncharova will be engaged in synthesizing nanoparticles based on copper and zinc. The method of pulsed laser ablation of volumetric targets (PLA) has been chosen to obtain them, because one of the main requirements for materials used in medicine is their purity.
In the structure and on the surface of the particles, as well as in the solution, there should be no unwanted impurities, unreacted substances, or by-products of synthesis of the material. The PLA method fully meets these requirements.
Researchers will use it in a gaseous medium - atmospheric air, a mixture of inert gas (argon) with oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Then they will study the chemical composition and structure, the size characteristics, the morphology of particles, and the stability of colloidal solutions prepared from powders.
Along with this, developers will test the effectiveness of nanoantibiotics using several types of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, including E. coli, Staphylococcus, and others.
- In the literature, the use of zinc and copper in one compound can produce a synergistic effect, in particular, zinc can reduce the toxic effects of copper,- says Daria Goncharova. - My scientific adviser and I want to test the possibility of sharing nanoparticles based on copper and zinc. We will work with colloid solutions and several types of pathogenic bacteria.
Dispersed systems for applying to biodegradable matrices (scaffolds for the repair of damaged tissues) made of poly-L-lactic acid will be obtained, based on the most active particles and their compounds. In addition, the researchers plan to introduce nanoparticles directly into the structure of the biomaterial during its synthesis. This will ensure a prolonged effect - nanoantibiotics will enter the patient's body during the dissolution of the biomaterial, which will help to prevent the reproduction of bacteria.
Such polymeric materials are very promising for creating nonremovable dressings for treating wounds of various types and preventing purulent infections, something which is especially important in field conditions.